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Hall Sensor Principle
- Sep 14, 2018 -

According to the principle of hall effect, the size of hall potential depends on: Rh is hall constant, which is related to semiconductor material; I is the bias current of hall element; B is the magnetic field strength; D is the thickness of semiconductor material.

For a given hall device, UH will depend entirely on the measured magnetic field strength B when the offset current I is fixed.

Hall effect

Hall effect

A hall element usually has four lead terminals, two of which are the input terminals of hall element's bias current I and the other two are the output terminals of hall voltage. If two output ends form an outer loop, hall current will be generated. Generally speaking, the setting of offset current is usually given by the external reference voltage source. If the precision requirements are high, the reference voltage source is replaced by the constant current source. In order to achieve high sensitivity, some hall elements have high permeability coating alloy on the sensing surface. The hall potential of such sensors is large, but saturation appears around 0.05t, which is only suitable for use under low limit and small range.

When a uniform magnetic field with magnetic induction intensity of B is applied at both ends of the semiconductor wafer to control current I, the hall voltage whose potential difference is UH will be generated in the direction perpendicular to the current and magnetic field.